Floriculture and Gardening Related Questions

Floriculture and Gardening Homehyme

When we pay attention to floriculture then a number of questions comes in our mind. One of them is what the importance and scope of floriculture. Floriculture has been part of Indian culture and is entwined in the social fabric of our customs. A wide range of conducive agro climatic conditions across the country enable India to cultivate a large number of flowers, potted plants, foliage and aromatic flowers almost throughout the year in one part or the another.

The gradual shift from sustenance agriculture to self-sufficiency in agriculture brought about change in life styles and increased the per capita income, which fuelled the growth of floriculture sector in the recent years. The floriculture industry in India is characterized by growing traditional flowers (loose flowers) and cut flowers under open field conditions and protected environment conditions, both. India also has a strong dry flower industry, which provides major contribution to the overall trade.

Other segments like; fillers, potted plants, seeds and planting material, turf grass industry and value added products also contribute a share in the overall growth of the floriculture sector. The traditional flower cultivation, comprising of growing loose flowers mostly for worship, garland making and decorations, forms the backbone of Indian floriculture, which is mostly in the hands of small and marginal farmers.

Exercise Questions

  1. What is the significance of floriculture in our culture?
  2. Write short note on Bio aesthetic planning and Prospects for improvement.
  3. Explain the national scenario of floriculture in brief?
  4. Explain in scope of floriculture and landscape gardening in India?
  5. What do you understand by value addition?
  6. Write down benefits of value addition?
  7. What are the value added commercial fragrant products of rose?
  8. What are the main dried flower products?
  9. What the major nutraceutical and pharmaceutical compounds obtained from flowers?
  10. Who are the main major challenges in value addition industries.?
  11. What do you understand by post harvest management?
  12. Write down a short note on harvesting?
  13. What are the various components of floral preservatives?
  14. What are the methods of storage of flowers?
  15. Write down the post harvest management of rose, carnation, chrysanthemum and marigold?
  16. Explain in brief the history of gardening in India?
  17. Write down the name of trees and creepers mentioned in both ‘Mahabharata’ and ‘Ramayana’ epics?
  18. Explain in brief cultural practices to control insect-pests of flower crops?
  19. Explain in detail the various insects of rose and gladiolus and their management?
  20. Write down the common symptoms of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases?
  21. Explain in detail the various diseases of rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, carnation and Lilium and their management?
  22. Explain in brief the various styles of gardens present in India.
  23. Explain different types of gardens.
  24. What do you understand by xeriscaping and write down the principles of xeriscaping?
  25. Write down a short note on Vertical gardening, Roof gardening and Terrace gardening.
  26. What do you understand by Interiorscaping and explain in detail the importance and modes of Interiorscaping?
  27. Explain in detail the planting material for xeriscaping, Interiorscaping and roof gardening?
  28. Explain in brief the principles of landscape gardening?
  29. Explain in brief the various elements of landscape gardening?
  30. Write a short note on Axis, Circulations in landscaping and Vista.
  31. Explain the factors which affect the landscape design?
  32. Explain in brief the various structures used for protected cultivation of flower crops?
  33. Explain in brief the advantages and basic considerations of protected cultivation?
  34. Enlist suitable varieties grown under protected structure for the following flower crops? Rose, Carnation, Lilium, Gerbera.
  35. What do you understand by annuals. Explain in brief the uses and their classification?
  36. Write down a short note on ornamental trees?
  37. Define shrubs? Explain in brief the uses and their classification?
  38. Define climbers? Explain in brief the uses and their classification?
    i. Define the following
    i. Plant tissue culture
    ii. Totipotency
    iii. Micropropagation
    iv. Transgenic plants
    v. Transformation
    vi. Marker assisted selection
  39. Explain in brief the gene transfer methods to develop transgenics.
  40. Differentiate between sexual and asexual methods of propagations. What are their advantages and disadvantages?
  41. Enlist different methods of vegetative propagation and give one example of each where these can be employed?
  42. Explain in detail the production technology of annual crops.
  43. Explain in brief the hybrid seed production in marigold and antirrhinum?
  44. Explain in brief the seed production techniques of flower crops?
  45. What are different advantages of F hybrids in flower crops?
  46. Explain in brief the various elements, concentration and their role in plant metabolism?
  47. Explain in brief the various nutrient deficiency symptoms in flower crops.
  48. What are different recommended doses of fertilizers for the following flower crops?
    i. Rose
    ii. Gladiolus
    iii. Chrysanthemum
    iv. Tuberose
    v. China aster
    vi. Marigold

Fill in the blanks

  1. Value added products constitute nearly __________ of the global floriculture business.
  2. Artificial colouring of the flowers to create novelty is called as __________.
  3. Preserving the rose petals in sugar is known as __________.
  4. Out of total floriculture exports, dry flower constitutes __________ share.
  5. India leads in export of __________ oil accounting over __________ of total exports of jasmine oil in the world.
  6. Gladiolus is harvested when __________________________.
  7. The main constituents of floral preservatives are __________, ________ and ___________.
  8. The sodium ions are detrimental to_____________flowers whereas fluorides are highly toxic to _______________ flower.
  9. Flowers are generally made into bunches ________, __________, ________ and _____ stems.
  10. In dry storage, ___________% CO and _______% O is kept to get good quality flowers.
  11. To overcome the harmful effect of insects and pathogens, there are broadly two types of management practices _______________ and _______________ measures.
  12. Growing a series of different / dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential season is called _______________.
  13. A point at which pest populations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control action must be taken is known as _______________.
  14. The most important insect pests of rose is _______________.
  15. Causal organism of powdery mildew in rose is _______________ and can be controlled by _______________  (fungicide).
  16. The area under floriculture in India during 2010-11 was_______________.
  17. The total production of loose flowers in India during 2010-11 was_______________.
  18. The total production of cut flowers in India during 2010-11 was_______________.
  19. Three major loose flower growing states are _______________, _______________ and_______________.
  20. Three major cut flower growing states are _______________ , _______________ and_______________.
  21. Tree __________ is closely associated with the life of Lord Krishna.
  22. The birth of Lord Buddha took place under the tree____________.
  23. The grove, Ashokavana was composed of tree____________.
  24. Nandanavana garden is dedicated to Lord ___________.
  25. As per Atharva Veda, the goods of the third heaven used to sit under _____________tree.
  26. The type of Japanese garden which is completely devoid of plants is____________.
  27. Flowering annuals is a common feature of ___________ style gardens.
  28. In Persian Gardens, three scented plants grown are_________, _________ and __________.
  29. French garden art was developed by______________.
  30. In Hindu-Buddhist gardens, a woman sculpture under a flowering ashoka tree is the symbol of _______.
  31. LED stands for_______________.
  32. The EC of soil/media used in protected cultivation should be _______________.
  33. The optimum pH of irrigation water in protected cultivation should be _______________.
  34. The planting density of rose in greenhouse is _______________ plants/m2.
  35. ‘Grand Gala’ is a variety of ____________ and is suitable for greenhouse cultivation.
  36. Three annuals like _______________ , _______________, and_______________ are used as cut flowers.
  37. _______________, _______________ and_______________ annuals are used for making dry flower products.
  38. Amaranthus is classified as _______________ day plant on the basis of photoperiodic requirement.
  39. Bougainvillea climbs with the help of special structure called _______________.
  40. An example of rambler is _______________.
  41. Marigold is propagated through_______________.
  42. Rose is commercially propagated through_______________.
  43. Patch budding is a propagation method of a _______________ tree.
  44. Dahlia is propagating by _______________ cuttings.
  45. _______________ sp. is propagating by mound or stool layering.
  46. F hybrid seed of petunia was first produced by_______________ Pvt.Ltd.
  47. Three examples of self pollinated seasonal flowers are_______________, _______________ and _______________.
  48. The pH of soil for seed production should be_______________.
  49. For seed production of often pollinated flower crops, _______________ m isolation distance is kept.
  50. The open pollinated seed production of flower crops was revolutionized by_______________.
  51. _______________ , _______________ and_______________ elements are used in building up the plant architecture.
  52. _______________ , _______________ and_______________ elements are used in both tissue building and metabolic functions.
  53. Iron, zinc and copper are available at ___________ pH.
  54. The criteria of essentiality for nutrient was proposed by _______________ and _______________ and redefined by _______________.
  55. _______________ % nitrogen is found in whole plant.
  56. RAPD stands for_______________.
  57. Black spot of Rose is caused by _______________.
  58. The gene responsible for crimson coloured pelargonidin pigment in petunia was transferred from ______________.
  59. World’s first blue rose was developed by —————— in collaboration with _______________.
  60. Bt transgenics are highly effective against _______________ pests of several crops.
  61. The word ‘xeri’ is derived from greek word_______________ which means_______________ and ‘scape’ means_______________.
  62. Three plants used for xeriscaping are_______________, _______________ and _______________.
  63. Interiorscaping is defined as_______________
  64. The garden where plants grown in a large bottle as in a terrarium is known as_______________.
  65. Vertical garden is defined as_______________.
  66. Visual equilibrium of any landscape design is known as_______________.
  67. Repetition of same object at equal distance is known as _______________.
  68. _______________ is created in any garden to avoid monotonous view.
  69. The overall effect of various features, styles and colour schemes of the total scene is called _______________.
  70. The total mass of any object or plant in landscape design is termed as______________.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following flower crops are propagated through seed

a) Chrysanthemum
b) Rose
c) Tuberose
d) None of above

2. Rhododendron is propagated through

a) Saddle grafting
b) Inarch grafting
c) T-budding
d) All of the above

3. Flat grafting is most commonly used for propagation of

a) Bulbous plants
b) Trees
c) Cacti and succulents
d) Both a & c

4. Which of the following is a summer annual

a) Salvia
b) Sweet Pea
c) Kochia
d) Sweet alyssum

5. Magnolia grandiflora is propagated through

a) Seeds
b) Cutting
c) Air layering
d) All of above

6. Which of the following has genetic male sterility

a) Marigold
b) Zinnia
c) Ageratum
d) All of above

7. Which of the following has self incompatibility

a) Petunia
b) Pansy
c) Both a and b
d) None of above

8. The first F1 hybrid of antirrhinum was developed during

a) 1953
b) 1975
c) 1997
d) None of above

9. Apple Blossom is a variety of

a) Marigold
b) Sweet alyssum
c) Petunia
d) Pansy

10. Which of the following is an often cross pollinated flower crop

a) Antirrhinum
b) Aster
c) Dahlia
d) All of above

11. The interveinal chlorosis in carnation is a symptom of

a) ‘Fe’ deficiency
b) ‘B’ deficiency
c) ‘Mn’ deficiency
d) All of above

12. In chrysanthemum, peripheral flowers loose turgidity before central flowers fully open, which is due to

a) ‘B’ deficiency
b) ‘Cu’ deficiency
c) ‘Fe’ deficiency
d) None of above

13. Stiff shoots and excess branching in rose is a deficiency symptom of

a) Fe
b) Mn
c) B
d) Cu

14. Phosphorous is available in which of the following form

a) HPO –
b) H PO – 4 2 4
c) Both a&b
d) None of above

15. The total quantity of boron in plants is found as

a) 2-75 ppm
b) 10-1500 ppm
c) 3-150 ppm
d) 5-1500 ppm

16. Plant tissue culture is based on the principle of

a) Explant
b) Organ
c) Totipotency
d) None of above

17. Chi trans-gene in carnation provide resistance against

a) Calyx splitting
b) Viruses
c) Fusarium wilt
d) Aphids

18. Floral binding protection gene is incorporated to modify the flower shape and colour in

a) Rose
b) Carnation
c) Petunia
d) All of above

19. Which of the following marker not a DNA based

b) STS
c) Isozyme
d) CAPs

20. Which of the following method is direct gene transfer method?

a) Agrobacterium based method
b) Particle gun method
c) Using liposome
d) Both b & c

21. Which of the following climber has fragrant flowers

a) Jasmine
b) Honey suckle
c) Both a&b
d) None of above

22. Which of the following climber can grow under shade

a) Clerodendron splendens
b) Thunbergia grandiflora
c) Jacquemontia pentantha
d) All of above

23. Which of the following is a climber

a) Ficus elastica
b) Ficus infectoria
c) Ficus repens
d) Ficus religiosa

24. Gomphrena is a

a) Long day plant
b) Short long day plant
c) Intermediate plant
d) Day neutral plant

25. Which of the following annual is used for screening purpose

a) Hollyhock
b) Sweet Pea
c) Moon flower
d) All of above

26. Which of the following are temporary structure

a) Cold frames
b) Sash beds
c) Hot beds
d) All of above

27. Mite is a most serious pest of

a) Lilium
b) Carnation
c) Gerbera
d) None of above

28. Planting time of lilium in plains is

a) Feb-March
b) May-June
c) Oct-Nov
d) All of above

29. ‘Connecticut King’ is a variety of

a) Rose
b) Carnation
c) Asiatic lily
d) Oriental lily

30. Which of the following greenhouse has rigid cladding material?

a) Multi Span
b) Saw tooth Multi Span
c) Both a & b
d) None of above

31. Which of the following is a circulation in landscape gardening

a) Divergent
b) Rounding
c) Looping
d) Both b & c

32. A three dimensional confined view of terminal building or dominant element of feature, is known as

a) Axis
b) Vista
c) Circulation
d) None of above

33. Which of the following is an element of landscape gardening

a) Pattern
b) Form
c) Colour
d) All of above

34. Which of the following is a neutral colour in colour scheme

a) White
b) Grey
c) Red
d) Both a & b

35. Tertiary colour are formed by mixing of

a) Red and white
b) Green and orange
c) Red and Blue
d) None of above

36. Flowering annual suitable for roof gardening is

a) Antirrhinum
b) Pansy
c) Dahlia
d) All of above

37. The plant suitable for xeriscaping is

a) Calliandra eriophylla
b) Tagetes lemmonii
c) Both a and b
d) None of above

38. Which of the following is suitable for terrace gardening

a) Portulaca
b) Lantana sp.
c) Thymus sp.
d) All of above

39. Xeriscaping is based upon the following principle

a) Soil analysis and improvement
b) Plant selection
c) Efficient irrigation
d) All of above

40. Interiorscaping improves

a) Indoor air quality
b) Work performance
c) Stress levels
d) All of above

41. India is the __________ largest producer of essential oil

a) 1st
b) 2nd
c) 3rd
d) None of above

42. Which of the following country is the largest exporter of essential oil?

a) India
b) USA
c) Australia
d) Turkey

43. Gulkand is made from

a) Rose
b) Chrysanthemum
c) Periwinkle
d) None of above

44. Out of total floricultural export, dry flowers constitute

a) 20%
b) 50%
c) 71%
d) 89%

45. The limonene is the major constituent of

a) Jasmine
b) Chrysanthemum
c) Marigold
d) All of above

46. Short duration pre-shipment or pre storage treatment with solution is known as

a) Holding
b) Pulsing
c) Pre-cooling
d) All of above

47. Microbial growth in vase water is decreases at pH

a) 3.0-3.5
b) 8-8.5
c) 7.0
d) None of above

48. Which of the following is act as biocide

a) Sugar
b) Citric acid
c) 8-HQC
d) Both b and C

49. The relative humidity inside the cold room is kept around

a) 40-50 %
b) 60-70 %
c) 90-95 %
d) None of above

50. Dry storage is also known as

a) Modified atmosphere storage
b) Controlled atmosphere storage
c) Low pressure storage
d) All of above

51. Which of the following is resistant to black spot

a) Rosa laevigata
b) R. multiflora
c) R. roxburghii
d) All of above

52. The serious disease of gladiolus is

a) Fusarium wilt
b) Die back
c) Powdery mildew
d) None of above

53. Foot and tuber rot of tuberose is caused by

a) Sclerotium rolfsii
b) Fusarium equiseti
c) Pythium sp.
d) None of above

54. Anthracnose is a disease of

a) Rose
b) Gladiolus
c) Gerbera
d) Chrysanthemum

55. Bacterial soft rot of Lilium is caused by

a) Bacillus sp.
b) Pseudomonas sp.
c) Pectobacterium sp.
d) Both a) and c)

56. Multi bracted cultivar of bougainvillea is

a) Lady Mary Baring
b) Golden Glow
c) Cherry Blossom
d) All of these

57. Bougainvillea cultivar ‘Mary Palmer was developed from

a) Hybridization
b) Mutation
c) Introduction
d) None of above

58. Polyploidy is induced using

a) Colchicine
b) Maleic Hydrazide
c) GA
d) NAA 3

59. Dwarfing in ornamentals is induced by growth retardant like

a) B-Nine
b) Phosphone
c) Cycocel
d) All of these

60. The concept of bio-aesthetic planning was given by

a) M. S. Randhawa
b) Lancelot Hogben
c) Julius
d) All of these

61. The Buddha attained his enlightenment under

a) Pipal tree
b) Kadamba tree
c) Ashoka tree
d) None of above

62. Who has established the Red Fort in Delhi and Taj Mahal in Agra.

a) Akbar
b) Jehangir
c) Shahjahan
d) Sher Shah Suri

63. Which of the following is a kind of garden mentioned in Kamasutra

a) Pramododyan
b) Udyan
c) Brikshavatika
d) All of above

64. The Harsh Charita was written by

a) Bana Bhatta
b) Vatsayana
c) Asvaghosha
d) None of above

65. The first evidence of which ornamental tree comes from a seal from Mohen-Jo-Daro.

a) Banyan tree
b) Ashoka tree
c) Arjun tree
d) Pipal tree

66. Which of the following is not a type of Japanese Garden

a) Hill Garden
b) Sand Garden
c) Tea Garden
d) Hindu Garden

67. Which one of the following is associated with Lord Buddha.

a) Ashoka tree
b) Jasmine
c) Silk Cotton tree
d) Narcissus

68. Which one of the following is a formal style of garden

a) Hindu-Buddhist Garden
b) Japanese Garden
c) Mughal Garden
d) English Garden

69. Baradari is an important feature of

a) English Garden
b) Hindu-Buddhist Garden
c) Mughal Garden
d) Japanese garden

70. The tree associated with Lord Shiva is

a) Jasmine tree
b) Kadamba tree
c) Silk cotton tree
d) None of above

True or False

  1. Harvesting should be done when temperature is high.
  2. Snapdragons are harvested when 1/3 florets are open.
  3. High pH promotes microbial growth and reduces vase life.
  4. Sugars in floral preservatives act as anti-ethylene compound.
  5. Anthurium is stored at 13 °C for 2-4 weeks.
  6. Helichrysum is the top most ten genera of dried ornamentals in the global market.
  7. The essential oil content of Rosa damascena is 1%.
  8. Pharmaceutical compounds like catharanthin, Vincristine (from Catharanthus roseus) used for cancer treatment.
  9. Marigold is used as a trap crop against grass hopper.
  10. Pyrethrum, an insecticide active ingredient is extracted from Periwinkle.
  11. Die back of rose is caused by Diplodia rosarum.
  12. Rosa wichuriana and R. rugosa are susceptible to black spot.
  13. The casual organism of Fusarium wilt is Curvularia trifolii.
  14. Chrysanthemum ray blight is caused by viruses.
  15. Flower bud rot of marigold is caused by Alternaria alternate.
  16. Ziziphus jujuba is used for interiorscaping.
  17. Interiorscaping improve air quality and reduce noise levels.
  18. Begonia is used for south window whereas pelargonium for north window.
  19. Rex begonia is suitable plant for terrarium, bowl and bottle garden.
  20. Deep rooted shrubs and climbers are suitable for roof gardens.
  21. The export of flowers contributes 50% global floriculture trade.
  22. India exports about $ 66 million flower produce to different countries.
  23. United state is the major importer of flower from India.
  24. Mussaenda philippica was introduced from America.
  25. Mahara is a single bracted cultivar of bougainvillea.
  26. No isolation distance is kept for pure seed production of cross pollinated flower crops.
  27. The seed yield of Tagetes erecta is 80-100 kg/acre.
  28. For hybrid production, a ratio of male sterile to male fertile is kept as 3:1.
  29. Prima Dona is a variety of petunia which was released by Benary Seed Company..
  30. The number of seeds of petunia per gram is 11,000.
  31. Budha Jayanti park was established during Post-Independence Perod.
  32. The Kalpavriksha is the wish granting tree.
  33. Shorea robusta is commonly known as Ashoka tree.
  34. The famous Grand Trunk Road was constructed by Sher Shah Suri
  35. The famous “Lal Bagh” was established by the king Hyder Ali.
  36. Petunia is a short long day plant.
  37. Plants attain a height of 0.5 -4.0 meter are known as shrubs.
  38. Ochna squarrosa is known for its ornamental berries.
  39. Antigonon leptopus has thorns to climb up.
  40. Climber Vernonia elaegnifolia is used to trained over pergola, arches, etc.
  41. Straight lines invite faster movement whereas curved lines bring slower movement.
  42. Proportion and harmony are the elements of a landscape gardening.
  43. The imaginary line which divides garden into two parts is known as vista.
  44. Red, blue and yellow colours are primary colours.
  45. Circulation is a pathway from entrance to terminal point.
  46. The concept of a wild gardens is against formalism.
  47. Hill garden is a part of English garden.
  48. In informal gardens, nature is preserved in an artificial way.
  49. The concept of wild garden was given by Le Notre.
  50. Lawn is the main feature of English Gardens.
  51. Wild shoot removal is the special cultural operation of carnation.
  52. Calyx splitting is a disorder of carnation.
  53. Bull head formation in rose occurs due to high temperature conditions.
  54. Gerbera is harvested when outer 2-3 rows of disc florets are perpendicular to the stalk.
  55. Fusarium wilt of carnation is caused by Fasarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi.
  56. Macro nutrients are found in soil in sufficient quantities whereas micronutrients are deficient in Indian soil.
  57. The availability of boron decreases at pH < 5 and >7.
  58. Magnesium is a part of chlorophyll molecule.
  59. Manganese have an important function in Tryptophan synthesis.
  60. Nitrogen is primarily required to promote flowering.
  61. DQR stands for dihydro quencetin-4 reductase.
  62. Colour modification of flower can be done by under expression of structural gene.
  63. The first antisense technology has been used inpetunia to incorporate antisense chs gene.
  64. The genetically engineered Moon series of carnation was produced by Suntory Ltd.
  65. Cry 1C protein in chrysanthemum control Spodoptera exigua.
  66. The underground storage organ of gladiolus is known as tuber.
  67. Cestrum nocturnum is raised through continuous layering.
  68. The bulbous plants like canna and iris have rhizomes.
  69. Chrysanthemum produces stolons throughout the year.
  70. Narcissus produces the small structures called bulbils.
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